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Vulnerabilities / Threats

7/31/2020
09:25 AM
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'Hidden Property Abusing' Allows Attacks on Node.js Applications

A team of researchers from Georgia Tech find a new attack technique that targets properties in Node.js and plan to publicly release a tool that has already identified 13 new vulnerabilities.

A team made up of security researchers from the Georgia Institute of Technology has found a way to exploit Node.js applications by manipulating the hidden properties used to track internal program states, the group plans to announce at the virtual Black Hat USA security conference next week.

The novel attack technique, dubbed Hidden Property Abusing, allows a remote attacker to inject new values into Node.js programs through passing objects that the framework, under the right circumstances, will treat as internal data. Using a tool to analyze a sample of 60 major Node.js components, the researchers found 13 vulnerabilities — ranging from SQL injection to the ability to bypass input validation.

The tool, dubbed Lynx, will be released at during the virtual Black Hat USA security conference, says Feng Xiao, the primary researcher and a doctoral student in the School of Computer Science at Georgia Tech.

"Our attacks focuses on certain program states or properties defined by the developers, such as the user ID or other program features," he says. "We found that this attack pattern is pretty common, but they can be complex to find, so we built the tool to help others."

Hidden Property Abusing takes advantage of developers' assumption that the internal program states are unreachable by an external attacker. The root cause of the problem is that "[a]fter the input data is converted to objects, Node.js treats them as legitimate objects like any other internal ones," the researchers state in a yet-to-be-published paper on the topic. 

The attack technique is similar to JavaScript Prototype Pollution, in which an attacker modifies a prototype object that is then merged, changing the base prototype of an object — changes that are then propagated to other JavaScript objects based on that prototype. In the case of Hidden Property Abusing, however, the prototype is not changed, but the properties inherited from a prototype can be forged, the researchers say.

"These parameters sometimes associate with some critical program states, but nobody knows their existence until an attacker exploits them, so that is why we call them hidden properties," Feng says. The research team consists of six students and Wenke Lee, a professor of computer science at Georgia Tech.

Node.js is an extremely popular platform for running JavaScript code in a server environment for cloud-enabled applications, with more than 51% of developers claiming to use Node.js on a regular basis, according to the 2020 StackOverflow Developer Survey. Some 70% of developers have designated Node.js as their primary application platform, according to security firm Snyk's open source technologies survey. Companies from Netflix to Trello to Microsoft's LinkedIn use, or have used, Node.js as a framework for some of part of their services.

Making the impact worse, Node.js relies heavily on dependencies. A single component can import dozens of other components, and if one of those packages are vulnerable, the original component will be vulnerable as well. In a recent report, software security firm Veracode found that the average JavaScript program imported 377 libraries.

"[D]ue to the heavy reuse phenomenon in the Node.js ecosystem, a huge number of Node.js applications may be impacted if a widely-used module is found to be vulnerable," the report states.

The Georgia Tech researchers' attack technique takes advantage of the fact that communications between the server and client sides of a Node.js application are usually done with JavaScript objects, because of built-in features that make such communications easier and allow for more complex data structures to be passed between components.

However, if an attacker can send objects with extra properties, they can enumerate hidden possibilities that could then be manipulated to attack the application. Hidden properties often represent the internal program state and changing them can have an impact on the program's security, the researchers say.

"In our analysis, we find the replaced property can be any data, such as a critical function or a key program state," the report states. "Thus, the attacker may abuse the propagation process ... of a hidden property to powerfully manipulate critical program logic associated with the compromised property."

To help developers identify potential attack vectors in their own Node.js application, the research team has created a tool, dubbed Lynx, that will be released during the Black Hat Security Briefings in early August. The tool identifies potential vulnerable properties by propagating fake parameters to enumerate and track the use of properties in the code.

"Lynx combines the advantages of static and dynamic analysis to track property propagation, identify hidden properties, and generate corresponding concrete exploits," the paper states.

The 13 vulnerabilities disclosed by the team were discovered using the tool to evaluate 60 popular Node.js programs. Using Lynx, the group found 318 candidates for hidden properties, with more than two-thirds of the programs containing such properties. Then, using dynamic analysis, the researchers were able to identify likely vulnerable properties.

"For Lynx, we track the data flows of the user and we statically analyze the propagation to find potential data dependencies that the attacker could create," Feng says. "Two groups of people should use the tools: The developers who develop APIs can use ours tools to attacks their own program and fix the program by building or deleting these hidden properties, and security researchers — white-hat hackers — can use the tools to find potential issues in open source programs."

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Veteran technology journalist of more than 20 years. Former research engineer. Written for more than two dozen publications, including CNET News.com, Dark Reading, MIT's Technology Review, Popular Science, and Wired News. Five awards for journalism, including Best Deadline ... View Full Bio
 

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