The dangers of peer-to-peer (P2P) file-sharing have been expounded upon countless times since Napster first made headlines. If the issues of copyright violation and threats of lawsuits werent enough of a deterrent or reason to be more cautious about what was being downloaded and shared, P2P users then started getting duped into downloading what they thought was the latest Top 40 song -- only to have malware infect their computers. Sounds bad, right? Add a sprinkling of vulnerabilities in P2P software and the situation becomes downright scary for the average user.
While many corporate networks have taken a firm stance on P2P technologies and enacted policies and technical controls to block them entirely, there are still a large number of networks where P2P users are allowed to roam free. Shocking, but true. As a security professional at a university with a large focus on research, there has always been a large push from researchers and faculty to have academic freedom when it comes to the network.
Philosophy aside, P2P isnt inherently bad and has legitimate uses. Vance Ikezoye, CEO of Audible Magic, which makes the CopySense P2P network monitoring appliance, agrees. He says the issue is that theres a large amount of copyrighted content being transmitted over the same P2P networks as legitimate traffic. As with most anything, there will be those who choose to abuse technology for their own ends, but that shouldnt stop P2P from being used for legit things like moving Linux distributions, updates to software (such as the World of Warcraft Downloader), and the virtual machine from ShmooCons "Hack or Halo" contest.
Opponents of P2P have a variety of reasons for banning it, but its mainly about three issues: the negative impact to bandwidth, legal liability of allowing users to share copyrighted content, and the potential exposure of sensitive information. Those issues certainly have merit, but the risks associated with each one can be mitigated in order to allow legitimate use to continue.
Decreased network performance is the more noticeable issue of the three, because it has a negative impact on normal business traffic (and everyone notices when the network slows down). As a member of several higher-education mailing lists, Ive seen a common trend of universities successfully handling the bandwidth issue by limiting the traffic, with packet shaping solutions like the Packeteer PacketShaper or Allot NetEnforcer. While packet shaping to limit the bandwidth P2P protocols use doesnt directly deal with the legal issues or data exposure, it can help organizations manage that traffic at a more easily monitored load.
The legal liabilities associated with allowing users on your network to share copyrighted material (whether you know theyre doing it or not) is not clear, as the lawsuits from the RIAA thus far have primarily focused on the user responsible for the sharing. But theres always the chance that the network owner could become a target of a lawsuit for allowing the behavior. Last month, the College Opportunity and Affordability Act (COAA), which requires higher-education institutions to filter P2P network traffic and provide a legal alternative to P2P-sharing of copyrighted content, passed though the House of Representatives.
One alternative to filtering P2P traffic entirely is to monitor and block just the traffic identified as being copyrighted, which is what the folks at Audible Magic say their CopySense network appliance is designed to do. Audible Magics Ikezoye says the CopySense appliance doesnt block all copyrighted content, but because copyright holders must register their content with Audible Magic first, it does cover the majority of popular copyrighted content that's being shared today.
The most damaging threat of P2P is the data leakage that could result from P2P users misconfiguring their clients to share out their entire hard drives. It doesnt even have to be an error on the users part. Chris Gormley, COO of Tiversa, says his company has seen numerous examples of malware on P2P networks disguised as interesting content that tricks users into running it. Then unbeknownst to the victim, the malware changes his or her sharing preferences.
Tiversa handles sensitive data leakage by monitoring P2P networks and looking for content on behalf of their customers, notifying them if they spot their sensitive data. Then the client can address the leak more quickly.
Data leakage prevention (DLP) technology would seem to be a good fit to prevent P2P leakage, but Gormley says that most of the time, the surprise leaks organizations suffer come from the weakest link in the information custody chain: "Corporations have to think outside the perimeter because P2P is very liquid. Fifty to 60 percent of the exposures they uncover are through third parties like accountants, medical transcription companies, consultants, and attorneys." Its the impact of what Tiversa calls the "extended enterprise" that cant be controlled by todays DLP solutions.
In a perfect world where a security professionals coffee cup is never empty and users never click on naughty URLs, P2P isnt an issue. Its blocked, so users never know what P2P was to begin with, and they dont know what theyre missing. But for the rest of us who cant block it due to legitimate usage or organizational philosophy, we must take steps to mitigate the associated risks. That means going beyond simple corporate policies telling users what they should and shouldnt do. Thankfully, there are technical solutions to help enforce those policies.
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