When designed appropriately and measured objectively, metrics are an indispensable part of a mature security program. Solid metrics can help an organization measure and track risk and performance as well as make educated adjustments and decisions as required. While most security professionals recognize and understand this, in practice, only a few organizations actually realize significant benefits from security metrics. There are many approaches to building an effective security metrics program. In this piece, I'd like to share some thoughts on a framework that has worked well for me.
Tip 1: Know your audience. Years ago, when I took a presentation seminar, I was given some very good advice: Know your audience. This advice applies to many areas, including metrics. The first step toward building a strong metrics framework is to understand who you're building it for, even if there are multiple audiences. The metrics reported to the board and executives will be different than those you use to make operational improvements and tactical adjustments. The metrics provided to customers showing that their data is protected will be different than the metrics for security management to make well-informed decisions. A good metrics framework provides the right metrics to the appropriate audiences, even when there are multiple audiences.
Tip 2: Aggregate: One great way to provide the right metrics to the appropriate audiences is to aggregate strategically. Each tier is more detailed than the tier above it, and more granular metrics roll up into broader, more strategic metrics as you move up through the tiers. As an example, consider four tiers of aggregation that I have found helpful in building out a sound security metrics framework:
œ Group: The highest-level aggregate is the group. Each group should be a broad area within security made up of different functional areas. Some examples of groups might include "Compliance," "Vulnerability Management," and "Security Monitoring," among others.
œ Area: The next-level aggregate is the area. Each area should be a specific function within security that contains one or more risks that need to be measured. Areas might be "Application Risk Assessment," "Vendor Risk Assessment," and "Training and Awareness," among others.
œ Key risk: The next level aggregate is the key risk. Each key risk should represent an area of concern and focus for the business where security is expected to measure, monitor, manage, and mitigate that specific risk. Each key risk should measure whether or not the organization has incurred an unacceptable risk. Within each key risk are one or more metrics that can help shine light onto whether or not controls are effective.
œ Metric: The metric level is the lowest level — and, in fact, isn't really an aggregate at all. Metrics should be as granular, scientific, and objective as possible, while allowing the security team to measure specific risks. Each metric should be mapped to a control and should help to measure whether or not the control is mitigating risk appropriately.
Tip 3: Map to controls. Ultimately, a good metric will help assess whether or not a control is effective at reducing risk. This has many benefits, including allowing the security organization to gain an understanding of where gaps may exist or where controls may need to be either designed or implemented differently. Of course, these benefits are only attainable when metrics are mapped to controls. It is a bit of a time investment to do so, though it is well worth it.
Tip 4: Designate acceptable values and objective ranges. If you've ever had your home or car inspected, you know that there are acceptable levels for radon in a home or emissions from a car. It isn't black or white or on or off. There is a range of levels within which the home or car passes the test, and outside of which, it fails. The same should be true for metrics. Once you have a solid set of metrics, define acceptable values for those metrics together with ranges that define different levels of risk (for example, low/medium/high, green/amber/red, or any other set of groupings that suits your organization). That will allow you to more objectively calculate risk levels for each metric, different aggregates of metrics, and in total across the organization.
Tip 5: Measure and report regularly. The carpentry proverb, "measure twice, cut once" can help us understand the importance of timely, accurate, and regular metrics. Metrics should be living and dynamic, rather than snapshotted and static. Just as accurate measurements inform the carpenter's cutting decisions, accurate security metrics inform the security leader's risk decisions. It's important to remember that the value of a given metric represents an accurate measurement only in the moment it is measured. Because of this, it's important to measure frequently and report metrics regularly. This allows the security organization to trend over time, spot abnormalities early on, and prevent additional risk from entering the organization unnecessarily.
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