Dark Reading is part of the Informa Tech Division of Informa PLC

This site is operated by a business or businesses owned by Informa PLC and all copyright resides with them.Informa PLC's registered office is 5 Howick Place, London SW1P 1WG. Registered in England and Wales. Number 8860726.

Operational Security //

Physical Security

11/1/2018
09:35 AM
Alan
 Zeichick
Alan Zeichick
Alan Zeichick
50%
50%

Let's Get Physical: Why Protecting Hardware Is Essential to Good Cybersecurity

Enterprises need to consider physical security as part of any comprehensive cybersecurity plan.

If possession is nine-tenths of the law, then undetected physical access is nine-tenths of the way to a successful cyber attack.

Many of us know how to protect servers and routers from unauthorized individuals, whether they're visitors, burglars, trespassers, or employees. Those protections, though, aren't enough.

Security starts at home -- in some cases, literally. Not long ago, my wife and I were staying in a small bed and breakfast that happened to be near a major company's local office. The WiFi access point sat on a table between several of the bedrooms, and had an "insert paperclip to reset" switch.

What are the odds that we could have broken into that unprotected device and potentially configured a hack?

Perhaps a hack that would let us eavesdrop on unencrypted traffic, like email logins or passwords. Maybe we could have overridden the DNS settings, and set up some faux web pages or staged a man-in-the-middle attack. Or even replaced the firmware with a version with a backdoor.

Sure, the odds of a successful payoff might be small from such an attack. What about if we knew that corporate board members would be staying at that B&B next week? If the hardware's not physically secure, then neither is the network.

Far-fetched? Perhaps.

So let's talk about protecting the hardware in official business locations. Are all your servers physically secured from unauthorized access? Maybe. Maybe not. Ask yourself if a thief could unplug a server, stick it on a cart, and walk it out the door during office hours -- or after hours. Or place removable hard drives into a briefcase. (Before the advent of always-on local or cloud backups, removable tapes were pretty easy to pilfer -- and nobody might notice for days or weeks.)

Theft isn't the only worry.

If hackers can get to the servers, they might be able to reboot those devices and make firmware modifications, read unencrypted drives, disable security protections, or plant malware such as keyloggers.

Compared to the one-time theft of a server, such activities could be gifts that keep on giving to malicious actors.

Beyond infiltrating servers, hackers could use physical access to gain access to networking gear or other devices -- and then subvert them. This type of hack is at the heart of what Bloomberg alleged in a controversial story about Chinese spies inserting specialized chips on Supermicro motherboards as part of an elaborate cyber espionage campaign. (See China Hacks Hardware in Spying Attempt on Apple, Amazon & Others Report.)

Some routers, for example, are configured to disallow out-of-band (that is, remote) control from outside the organization's local area network. If a baddie can get to the management console from inside the LAN, or by using a dedicated management port on the device, hacking became a whole lot easier.

Indeed, as the US-Computer Emergency Response Team (US-CERT) team writes in its June 2018 brief, "Securing Network Infrastructure Devices," that type of hardware are ideal targets for malicious cyber actors because organizational and customer traffic must traverse these critical devices. To quote:

  • An attacker with presence on an organization's gateway router can monitor, modify and deny traffic to and from the organization.
  • An attacker with presence on an organization's internal routing and switching infrastructure can monitor, modify and deny traffic to and from key hosts inside the network and leverage trust relationships to conduct lateral movement to other hosts.

A real worry is that network hardware can be neglected by security teams, especially when compared to desktops, servers and mobile devices. Additional risk factors, according to CERT:

  • Manufacturers build and distribute these network devices with exploitable services, which are enabled for ease of installation, operation and maintenance.
  • Owners and operators of network devices often don't change vendor default settings, harden them for operations, or perform regular patching.
  • Internet service providers may not replace equipment on a customer's property once the equipment is no longer supported by the manufacturer or vendor.
  • Owners and operators often overlook network devices when they investigate, look for intruders and restore general-purpose hosts after cyber intrusions.

What can you do?

CERT offers several suggestions for network infrastructure; see which you can readily implement, and make sure you check them periodically.

For servers and other gear, make sure they are locked away, and if possible, have surveillance cameras, motion sensors, and other means of knowing if your server room -- or wiring closet -- is breached.

If you are breached, take it seriously. Because undetected physical access is nine-tenths of the way to a successful hack.

Related posts:

Alan Zeichick is principal analyst at Camden Associates, a technology consultancy in Phoenix, Arizona, specializing in enterprise networking, cybersecurity, and software development. Follow him @zeichick.

Comment  | 
Print  | 
More Insights
Comments
Threaded  |  Newest First  |  Oldest First
NSA Appoints Rob Joyce as Cyber Director
Dark Reading Staff 1/15/2021
Vulnerability Management Has a Data Problem
Tal Morgenstern, Co-Founder & Chief Product Officer, Vulcan Cyber,  1/14/2021
Register for Dark Reading Newsletters
White Papers
Video
Cartoon Contest
Write a Caption, Win an Amazon Gift Card! Click Here
Latest Comment: This is not what I meant by "I would like to share some desk space"
Current Issue
2020: The Year in Security
Download this Tech Digest for a look at the biggest security stories that - so far - have shaped a very strange and stressful year.
Flash Poll
Assessing Cybersecurity Risk in Today's Enterprises
Assessing Cybersecurity Risk in Today's Enterprises
COVID-19 has created a new IT paradigm in the enterprise -- and a new level of cybersecurity risk. This report offers a look at how enterprises are assessing and managing cyber-risk under the new normal.
Twitter Feed
Dark Reading - Bug Report
Bug Report
Enterprise Vulnerabilities
From DHS/US-CERT's National Vulnerability Database
CVE-2021-1067
PUBLISHED: 2021-01-20
NVIDIA SHIELD TV, all versions prior to 8.2.2, contains a vulnerability in the implementation of the RPMB command status, in which an attacker can write to the Write Protect Configuration Block, which may lead to denial of service or escalation of privileges.
CVE-2021-1068
PUBLISHED: 2021-01-20
NVIDIA SHIELD TV, all versions prior to 8.2.2, contains a vulnerability in the NVDEC component, in which an attacker can read from or write to a memory location that is outside the intended boundary of the buffer, which may lead to denial of service or escalation of privileges.
CVE-2021-1069
PUBLISHED: 2021-01-20
NVIDIA SHIELD TV, all versions prior to 8.2.2, contains a vulnerability in the NVHost function, which may lead to abnormal reboot due to a null pointer reference, causing data loss.
CVE-2020-26252
PUBLISHED: 2021-01-20
OpenMage is a community-driven alternative to Magento CE. In OpenMage before versions 19.4.10 and 20.0.6, there is a vulnerability which enables remote code execution. In affected versions an administrator with permission to update product data to be able to store an executable file on the server ...
CVE-2020-26278
PUBLISHED: 2021-01-20
Weave Net is open source software which creates a virtual network that connects Docker containers across multiple hosts and enables their automatic discovery. Weave Net before version 2.8.0 has a vulnerability in which can allow an attacker to take over any host in the cluster. Weave Net is suppli...