The explosion in connected devices, ranging from the Internet of Things to networking devices and operational technology (collectively known as the Extended Internet of Things, or xIoT), has created a vast, diverse, and largely unmapped attack surface that sophisticated adversaries are actively exploiting.
This growing risk is reflected in many recent reports from companies like Microsoft, Intel 471, and Zscaler that have found a significant uptick in both targeted and untargeted attacks on these devices, with a high rate of malware infections.
However, these threats — particularly when they target IoT devices — are often misunderstood or dismissed, as companies tend to view them as less significant than a traditional network attack. Part of the reason for this is the mistaken belief that IoT threats are mostly limited to botnet malware used for cryptomining and distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks. In reality, IoT attacks are becoming much more sophisticated and now pose serious threats to corporate network integrity, data security, and even physical security systems.
Here are three xIoT attacks every company should be aware of:
Pivoting From the xIoT Device
Since many xIoT devices lack even basic native cybersecurity protections, disallow the installation of traditional endpoint security software, and are often unmonitored, they are an effective initial access point for attackers looking to gain a beachhead on a company and then move laterally across its network.
Once the xIoT device has been compromised, the adversary can use this foothold to upload tools, sniff network traffic, search for other exploitable devices, and exfiltrate sensitive data. For example, an attacker can transition from an IoT device into the main IT network, as well as the operational technology (OT) network.
This type of "pivot attack" has already been observed in the wild by multiple companies. My company has seen a growing number of corporate cyberattacks, in which the company was first compromised through a security camera, door controller, or other device, then targeted with ransomware, espionage, or data theft through its IT network.
In 2019, Microsoft Threat Intelligence Center detected an adversary that exploited three different IoT devices (a VoIP phone, a printer, and a video decoder), from which the actor established a presence on the network while looking for further access. Researchers also unveiled a proof-of-concept ransomware that can spread from an xIoT device to an IT network.
Atypical Data Theft
xIoT devices can also be direct targets of espionage and data theft.
Certain office devices like connected printers and document scanners are storehouses of sensitive corporate information that is largely unprotected. In the healthcare industry, CT scanners and MRI machines also contain valuable personal and medical information. Industrial devices can pose data breach risks too. Certain OT devices, like programmable logic controllers (PLCs), can contain privileged manufacturing and processing details, such as temperature and pressure ranges, chemical mixing.
This type of sensitive data storage in xIoT devices is often overlooked by traditional information security audits, and the devices themselves offer little, if any, data protection. For remote attackers, gaining access to these devices is usually a trivial matter.
My company has found that 50% of xIoT devices use default passwords, 68% of devices have high-risk or critical CVEs in their firmware, and 26% of these devices are end-of-life and no longer supported. This means in literally half of these cases, all an attacker needs to do is enter in a default password to gain access to privileged data.
xIoT as a Persistence Strategy
Threat actors who have already breached a corporate IT network through traditional means like phishing may also carry out a second-stage attack on xIoT devices to achieve long-term persistence inside the organization.
One example is the threat actor UNC3524, which Mandiant recently discovered had been installing a backdoor called QuietExit in opaque network appliances and IoT devices like security cameras, remaining undetected on victims' networks for at least 18 months.
xIoT devices are an ideal hiding place for sophisticated adversaries. These devices are poorly monitored, lack anti-malware and intrusion detection coverage, and are not easy to analyze during incident response. My company has found that over 80% of security teams can't even identify the majority of xIoT devices they have in their networks. They also fall into an administrative gray area in terms of who is responsible for managing them (is it the IT team, the security team, the operations team, or the vendor?), which leads to confusion and inaction.
An adversary can easily install a backdoor in any one of these overlooked xIoT devices that will be exceedingly difficult for the security team to detect. The average enterprise has anywhere from tens of thousands to millions of xIoT devices, and typically relies on manual processes for monitoring and maintaining them. Detecting such a backdoor will be like trying to find a needle in an enormous haystack (or haystacks).
Preventing the Full Range of xIoT Attacks
In spite of their many risks, xIoT devices can be sufficiently protected without imposing high costs on a company.
Basic measures such as strong password management and keeping firmware up to date will drastically reduce the risk. Accurate inventorying and regular monitoring are also key.
Where companies will be challenged is in terms of the volume of devices they must protect. This is why automation is important, as manually changing passwords and updating firmware on such a vast array of devices isn't feasible for most companies.