Vulnerabilities / Threats
01:38 PM

Zeus 'Gameover' Trojan Expands Global Reach

Cybercrime clients configure juggernaut Gameover variant of banking Trojan to reach bank customers in new countries.

Customers of the crimeware-as-a-service syndicate behind the "Gameover" variant of the venerable Zeus banking Trojan have been customizing the malware to steal data from a number of new banking sites.

Denmark-based CSIS Security Group sounded that warning Wednesday, reporting that the number of unique targets for Zeus web injection capabilities has recently increased by 38% -- from 1,097 at the beginning of 2014, to 1,515 at the end of March.

Using web injection allows Zeus -- like many other types of malware -- to hook into Windows processes and gain raw access to HTTP data traveling over the network. Zeus then modifies that HTTP data, for example to surreptitiously make bank transfers in the background while showing users a normal-looking banking website page.

According to a report issued last year by Poland's Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT Polska), Zeus can compare a visited site's URL with a preset list, and then execute predefined actions, which are either contained in a configuration file or retrieved from an external server by using a peer-to-peer (P2P) proxy to disguise related communications. These actions can include recording data or making screenshots, for example to capture banking website login codes for sites that require customers to employ onscreen keyboards.

[Perfect security is impossible -- think about consequence management instead. See Dispelling The Myths Of Cyber Security.]

The Zeus Tracker reports that there are currently about 450 Zeus command-and-control servers online, and the average anti-malware detection rate for Zeus binaries is only about 40%. According to CSIS, various versions of Zeus are thought to infect and control a few million PCs around the world. The ongoing use of Zeus has been driven in part by the malware source code getting leaked in 2011.

Unlike many Zeus operators, however, the gang behind Gameover doesn't sell their version of the code directly, but instead allows customers to lease the botnet for their attacks. In the past, the group has also tapped some third-party malicious infrastructure, including using the Cutwail spamming botnet to distribute related malware.

Historically, Zeus-using online criminals have tended to focus their efforts on better-known banks, especially in the United States, Canada, and Western Europe. But according to Peter Kruse, a security specialist at CSIS Security Group, Gameover's user base has recently been launching attacks against customers of financial services firms and other organizations for the first time. "Amongst the 'new countries' being significantly targeted by this malware family we are seeing: South Africa, Nigeria, India, Singapore, Turkey, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Australia, Croatia, Greece, but in general we are seeing brands from all over the world being attacked," he said in a blog post.

Gameover's geographic expansion has been facilitated by its developers giving their crimeware-as-a-service (CaaS) customers the ability to customize and tweak related configuration profiles to their liking. "The malware also includes a basic ZeuS webinject template, but each customer in the ZeuS P2P CaaS can modify and add new advanced webinjects and increase the number of targets," Kruse said.

Enabling Gameover to be used in new markets -- even if they offer less bang for the buck than existing, higher-net-worth banking customer targets -- makes economic sense. For starters, the customizations allow criminals to use Gameover to attack local banks and generate new sources of revenue. Likewise, every new customer that leases the malware helps increase the profits for the Gameover gang, at least some of which they'll plow back into research and development to help attract future cybercrime customers.

Mathew Schwartz served as the InformationWeek information security reporter from 2010 until mid-2014. View Full Bio

Comment  | 
Print  | 
More Insights
Newest First  |  Oldest First  |  Threaded View
User Rank: Ninja
5/24/2014 | 7:36:59 AM
Protect the Software First
For Computer Security you must protect the software first.   Until un-authorized programming such as ZEUS arxe excluded and verified excluded -- there can be no meaningful discussion of "Computer Security". The term "Computer Security" will remain an oxymoron and the game of whac-a-mole will continue.

only the OS OEM can protect the operating software and that must be protected first.  It is the OS that protects the application software -- through memory protection and privileged instructions.  These asre implemented in the hardware.   The OS runs in "kernel mode" (RING0) while applications run in User Mode (RING3).

in User mode a program cannot modify the OS -- unless the OS allows it.    such permission should be granted only with the approval of the operator and only where the operator is administrator.

we have a real mess to clean up.
Register for Dark Reading Newsletters
White Papers
Current Issue
Dark Reading Tech Digest September 7, 2015
Some security flaws go beyond simple app vulnerabilities. Have you checked for these?
Flash Poll
Twitter Feed
Dark Reading - Bug Report
Bug Report
Enterprise Vulnerabilities
From DHS/US-CERT's National Vulnerability Database
Published: 2015-10-09
Simple Streams (simplestreams) does not properly verify the GPG signatures of disk image files, which allows remote mirror servers to spoof disk images and have unspecified other impact via a 403 (aka Forbidden) response.

Published: 2015-10-09
The Telephony component in Apple OS X before 10.11, when the Continuity feature is enabled, allows local users to bypass intended telephone-call restrictions via unspecified vectors.

Published: 2015-10-09
IcedTea-Web before 1.5.3 and 1.6.x before 1.6.1 does not properly sanitize applet URLs, which allows remote attackers to inject applets into the .appletTrustSettings configuration file and bypass user approval to execute the applet via a crafted web page, possibly related to line breaks.

Published: 2015-10-09
IcedTea-Web before 1.5.3 and 1.6.x before 1.6.1 does not properly determine the origin of unsigned applets, which allows remote attackers to bypass the approval process or trick users into approving applet execution via a crafted web page.

Published: 2015-10-09
The Safari Extensions implementation in Apple Safari before 9 does not require user confirmation before replacing an installed extension, which has unspecified impact and attack vectors.

Dark Reading Radio
Archived Dark Reading Radio
What can the information security industry do to solve the IoT security problem? Learn more and join the conversation on the next episode of Dark Reading Radio.