Risk

4/29/2010
03:38 PM
Connect Directly
Google+
Twitter
RSS
E-Mail
50%
50%

Researchers Lock Down The Hypervisor

Prototype prevents 'Blue Pill' and other types of malware-injection attacks against the hypervisor

Researchers at North Carolina State University have come up with a tool that aims to eliminate one of the biggest risks to virtualization and cloud computing: attacks on the hypervisor. The so-called HyperSafe prototype blocks any new code -- think malware -- from getting into the hypervisor and restricts alterations to the hypervisor's code.

The NC State research, funded by the U.S. Army Research Office and the National Science Foundation, focused on using features in the underlying hardware to help armor the hypervisor against attacks. Xuxian Jiang, assistant professor of computer science at NC State and head of the research team that created HyperSafe, says the tool is integrated into the hypervisor itself, and that the research team used it on Xen and BitVisor hypervisors.

"Existing hypervisors, such as Xen and BitVisor, need to be modified or extended to include HyperSafe...which enables the hypervisor with self-protection from code-injection attempts," Jiang says. HyperSafe would theoretically block threats, such as Blue Pill and Vitriol -- hypervisor rootkits that inject malware into the hypervisor, he says.

The tool uses two techniques to secure the hypervisor: nonbypassable memory lockdown and restricted pointer-indexing. Nonbypassable memory lockdown basically blocks any new code from the hypervisor, except for code introduced by the system administrator. So if a user downloads malware that exploits a buffer overflow bug in a hypervisor, it can't be compromised, according to the research.

"It uses a hardware feature called WP to effectively lock down the memory range...that contains executable code. This memory range cannot be changed to include new additional code for execution in the hypervisor," Jiang says. "Also, this memory page is marked 'read-only' and existing code will not be modified."

Restricted pointer-indexing is basically a way that monitors any unusual behavior by the hypervisor to prevent changes to the hypervisor code, except by the administrator. "HyperSafe is designed to block [these types of attacks], even with the assumption that exploitable bugs are present in the hypervisor software," he says. "Considering the large and complex hypervisor code, we need to find a solution to thwart hypervisor-level code injection, which is the challenging part in HyperSafe."

But the technique doesn't prevent a rogue administrator from altering the hypervisor -- HyperSafe doesn't handle physical-level attacks.

The hypervisor defense techniques could protect against a virtual machine escape, for instance, where a compromised guest VM would be unable to attack the hypervisor. "The goal of HyperSafe is to address code-injection attacks at the hypervisor level," Jiang says.

Jiang says he and his team are working on expanding the tool to other hypervisors, and they aren't ruling out rolling the technology into commercial form: "At this stage, we are open for any possibilities, including a close collaboration with key players in the virtualization market to better secure the hypervisor software," he says.

HyperSafe assumes trusted hardware and only addresses threats from untrusted guest VMs, he says. He hopes to add support some hardware attacks in future research.

The hypervisor tool follows research Jiang and a team did last year on combating rootkits. They used a machine's own hardware-based memory protection to protect the operating system kernel from rootkits, developing the so-called HookSafe tool.

The tool prevents rootkits from even infiltrating the system, rather than having to find the stealthy code and clean it up, which is no easy task, according to the researchers.

Meantime, the NC State researchers will present their new HyperSafe research next month at the IEEE Symposium On Security And Privacy in Oakland, Calif. Their paper is called "HyperSafe: A Lightweight Approach to Provide Lifetime Hypervisor Control-Flow Integrity" (PDF).

Have a comment on this story? Please click "Discuss" below. If you'd like to contact Dark Reading's editors directly, send us a message.

Kelly Jackson Higgins is Executive Editor at DarkReading.com. She is an award-winning veteran technology and business journalist with more than two decades of experience in reporting and editing for various publications, including Network Computing, Secure Enterprise ... View Full Bio

Comment  | 
Print  | 
More Insights
Comments
Newest First  |  Oldest First  |  Threaded View
Devastating Cyberattack on Email Provider Destroys 18 Years of Data
Jai Vijayan, Freelance writer,  2/12/2019
Up to 100,000 Reported Affected in Landmark White Data Breach
Kelly Sheridan, Staff Editor, Dark Reading,  2/12/2019
Register for Dark Reading Newsletters
White Papers
Video
Cartoon
Current Issue
5 Emerging Cyber Threats to Watch for in 2019
Online attackers are constantly developing new, innovative ways to break into the enterprise. This Dark Reading Tech Digest gives an in-depth look at five emerging attack trends and exploits your security team should look out for, along with helpful recommendations on how you can prevent your organization from falling victim.
Flash Poll
How Enterprises Are Attacking the Cybersecurity Problem
How Enterprises Are Attacking the Cybersecurity Problem
Data breach fears and the need to comply with regulations such as GDPR are two major drivers increased spending on security products and technologies. But other factors are contributing to the trend as well. Find out more about how enterprises are attacking the cybersecurity problem by reading our report today.
Twitter Feed
Dark Reading - Bug Report
Bug Report
Enterprise Vulnerabilities
From DHS/US-CERT's National Vulnerability Database
CVE-2019-8354
PUBLISHED: 2019-02-15
An issue was discovered in SoX 14.4.2. lsx_make_lpf in effect_i_dsp.c has an integer overflow on the result of multiplication fed into malloc. When the buffer is allocated, it is smaller than expected, leading to a heap-based buffer overflow.
CVE-2019-8355
PUBLISHED: 2019-02-15
An issue was discovered in SoX 14.4.2. In xmalloc.h, there is an integer overflow on the result of multiplication fed into the lsx_valloc macro that wraps malloc. When the buffer is allocated, it is smaller than expected, leading to a heap-based buffer overflow in channels_start in remix.c.
CVE-2019-8356
PUBLISHED: 2019-02-15
An issue was discovered in SoX 14.4.2. One of the arguments to bitrv2 in fft4g.c is not guarded, such that it can lead to write access outside of the statically declared array, aka a stack-based buffer overflow.
CVE-2019-8357
PUBLISHED: 2019-02-15
An issue was discovered in SoX 14.4.2. lsx_make_lpf in effect_i_dsp.c allows a NULL pointer dereference.
CVE-2013-2516
PUBLISHED: 2019-02-15
Vulnerability in FileUtils v0.7, Ruby Gem Fileutils <= v0.7 Command Injection vulnerability in user supplied url variable that is passed to the shell.