Diary Of A Breach
It's 10:00. Do you know where your data is? Before you answer, take a look at our intrusion time line
Our experience shows that attackers are more successful than most people like to believe--breaches that make the news are just the tip of the iceberg. Most go unreported, and few IT organizations have the know-how to cope with successful incursions. There are so many moving parts that incident response teams regularly make mistakes, and one miscommunication can cost thousands of dollars.
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Juggling lots of moving parts can be a less dicey process with a comprehensive risk management framework, but few companies have such frameworks in place. Only 35% of the 563 respondents to our January 2011 InformationWeek Analytics IT Risk Management Survey say their programs holistically cover all the key risks related to IT, including operational, financial, and business. Just 9% characterize their programs as optimized. To show what can happen when various groups are working without an overarching security structure, we've created a breach diary. The company and details of the attack are fictional, but the mistakes are taken from actual situations. We'll lay out the scenario, and then dissect what went wrong and discuss the lessons learned.
6:00 p.m. Everything seems normal. Meetings dragging on, expense reports submitted, clock ticking slowly as ever. Everyone planning for the upcoming weekend.
8:00 a.m.Network operations center (NOC) notices that a database server registered higher than normal resource utilization overnight. It appears to be a spike. As the support team begins to discuss, alerts come in for a network outage affecting the corporate office. The team pivots to respond. It resolves the issue, but in all the excitement, the database anomaly is forgotten.
10:00 a.m. Security team meets to review open items from the current week and set priorities for the upcoming week. The team reviews development defects, numbers of incidents, projects that need attention, and the ludicrously insecure requests made by other departments that were summarily denied. Everyone looking forward to the weekend. No one mentions that database server.
4:00 p.m. Reports submitted, emails answered, alerts investigated, and the day is more or less over. The team works the next hour to tie up loose ends, decide what tasks can wait for Monday, and solve the most pressing issue: where to go for happy hour. Life is good.
2:00 a.m. NOC is paged to respond to another instance of high resource utilization on a database server. The database is queuing requests, production applications are timing out, and alerts are being triggered. As NOC staffers begin looking into the problem, they see that an Oracle process is consuming the majority of system resources and memory. They have no insight into why or how this is happening, so they escalate the issue to the database adminnistrator (DBA) on call.
2:30 a.m. DBA responds by email to the NOC. He instructs the NOC to restart Oracle, and if that doesn't solve the problem, restart the server. Says the team can call him again if these steps don't solve the problem.
3:30 a.m. NOC restarts Oracle and, just for good measure, the database server, to avoid having to call the DBA again. Team closes the alert, noting it was able to resolve the problem without re-escalating to the DBA. That will look good in the CIO's metrics, which count the number of times issues are escalated from the NOC to on-call admins. The team feels proud.
5:00 a.m. NOC begins receiving alerts for high resource utilization on the same database server the team thought it had fixed. The NOC determines that the DBA must be paged again, since this is a repeat issue.
6:30 a.m. DBA has logged in and removed the database server from the production pool. The redundant configuration will allow this server to sit quietly until Monday morning, when he can take a look at it without an impact on operations. The DBA demonstrates his abilities as the world's greatest father and husband, making breakfast for the family before taking the kids to the mall. Son gets a new video game, daughter wanders from store to store, texting her friends and wondering why she must spend all day with her family instead of doing whatever teenage girls do.