Attacks/Breaches
12/19/2013
10:19 AM
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Target Confirms Hackers Stole 40 Million Credit Cards

Hackers' 19-day heist scoops up all ingredients required to make counterfeit cards.

Hackers have successfully stolen 40 million credit and debit cards from retail giant Target.

The retailer confirmed Thursday that the massive data breach, which occurred between November 27 and December 15, resulted in attackers gaining "unauthorized access" to customers' names, credit or debit card numbers, card expiration dates, and three-digit CVV security codes. That information is all that criminals would need to make fraudulent transactions online or create working, counterfeit cards in the names of customers -- or in Target's marketing-ese, "guests."

"Target today confirmed it is aware of unauthorized access to payment card data that may have impacted certain guests making credit and debit card purchases in its US stores," according to a statement released Thursday by Target. "Target is working closely with law enforcement and financial institutions, and has identified and resolved the issue."

Target said it had immediately notified law enforcement agencies as soon as it discovered the breach, and that it planned to hire a third-party digital forensics firm to investigate the breach and recommend information security improvements.

"Target's first priority is preserving the trust of our guests and we have moved swiftly to address this issue, so guests can shop with confidence. We regret any inconvenience this may cause," said Gregg Steinhafel, Target's president and CEO, in a statement. "We take this matter very seriously and are working with law enforcement to bring those responsible to justice."

[What's on your list? My 5 Wishes For Security In 2014.]

The attack appears to have been timed to take advantage of the busiest shopping day of the year, Black Friday, which this year fell on November 29. But the heist was likely planned far in advance. "Due to the size and scale, this seems like it would have been a planned attack that began well before Black Friday," said Matt Standart, HBGary's threat intelligence director, via email. "To be successful, the adversary would have performed detailed reconnaissance and other activities in preparation for their primary mission objective. This would have required infrastructure compromise, entrenchment, command and control, and privileged access, all of which take time and effort."

Targeting the holiday shopping period -- and especially Black Friday -- was an astute move on the part of attackers, he added. For starters, they could have amassed the maximum possible amount of card data before being detected. In addition, the volume of sales, and resulting load on Target's IT infrastructure, might have served as "a distraction to give more operational security to the adversary," Standart said.

Target operates not only Target.com, but also 1,797 stores in the United States and 124 in Canada. But based on the company's statement, only card data from its brick-and-mortar US stores appear to have been compromised. "We can't say for sure that all stores were impacted, but we do see customers all over the US that were victimized," an anti-fraud analyst at one of the country's top 10 card issuers told security reporter Brian Krebs.

The massive breach puts an unfortunate wrinkle on Minneapolis-based Target's corporate promise: "Expect more. A lot more." While the breach didn't involve as many card numbers as the biggest such breach to date -- involving thieves stealing details on up to 90 million cards from T.J. Maxx parent company TJX, it is well above last year's theft of 1.5 million accounts from payment processor Global Payments. In July, meanwhile, the Department of Justice announced charges against a Russian cybercrime ring that was accused of hacking into the systems of such businesses as NASDAQ, 7-Eleven, and JetBlue and stealing 160 million credit card numbers.

Target will now face sharp questions about whether it was storing card data in encrypted format, and whether it had been certified as being compliant with the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI-DSS). A Target spokesperson, emailed for comment on the above questions, didn't immediately respond.

But the retailer is to be commended for coming clean about the breach relatively quickly. The company Thursday posted a data breach notification on its site that includes extensive details -- including state-by-state breakdowns -- about how customers can monitor for any identity theft that might result.

Target has warned customers to beware of fraudulent use of their credit and debit card numbers. "If you see something that appears fraudulent, REDcard holders should contact Target, others should contact their bank," the company said, referring to its Target-branded "REDcard" debit and credit cards. But so far, the company hasn't offered to provide free identity theft monitoring services to affected customers. But anyone hit with credit or debit card fraud should be able to contest the charges with their card issuer, provided they do so in a timely fashion -- usually within 60 days of receiving a related statement.

Going forward, the concern is that anyone who shopped at -- or with -- Target during the 19-day breach window is that the stolen card data could be used at any point in the future. Hackers often sell stolen card data in bulk to others via carder forums and other underground cybercrime marketplaces. Other criminals may then purchase the information and use it to make fraudulent online purchases, or encode the information into fake credit cards. These forged cards are distributed to money mules, who use them to make fraudulent in-store purchases. They then resell the goods to amass cash.

In the case of the Target breach, this cybercrime cycle could be broken if credit card issuers cancel all affected card numbers and issue new cards. Of course, it remains to be seen if they -- or Target -- are willing to foot the related bill.

Mathew Schwartz is a freelance writer, editor, and photographer, as well the InformationWeek information security reporter.

Knowing your enemy is the first step in guarding against him. In this Dark Reading report, Integrating Vulnerability Management Into The Application Development Process, we examine the world of cybercriminals -- including their motives, resources and processes -- and recommend what enterprises should do to keep their data and computing systems safe in the face of an ever-growing and ever-more-sophisticated threat. (Free registration required.)

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Kristin Burnham
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Kristin Burnham,
User Rank: Apprentice
12/19/2013 | 10:56:47 AM
Yikes.
What a nightmare. While Target should be commended for coming clean so quickly, it's unsettling that this type of ordeal could happen to such a large corporation and affect such a large number of people.
kwieting
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kwieting,
User Rank: Apprentice
12/19/2013 | 12:16:21 PM
Re: Yikes.
ACM, Question:  How could a merchant possibly be compliant to any standard if they are breached?  It's ridiculous to think a merchant is compliant after the fact either.
Drew Conry-Murray
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Drew Conry-Murray,
User Rank: Ninja
12/19/2013 | 12:48:05 PM
Re: Yikes.
Thanks for the comment. Being compliant with a standard and reducing the risk of a breach to zero are two entirely different things. Being compliant with PCI means that an organization has followed a specific set of instructions for a specific set of controls and practices, like vulnerability scanning and encryption. But this doesn't mean an organization has eliminated all risk. The card brands (Visa, MasterCard, etc.) would like to conflate PCI compliance with invulnerability, but any security practitioner will tell you that invulnerability is an impossible standard.

Think of the PCI system as kind of like a driver's license. You pass a written exam and a driving exam and you get your license from the state. Then you get in an accident. The state comes along and levies extra fines against you for not having a license--because if you got in an accident, then you must not have really passed the test.
Somedude8
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Somedude8,
User Rank: Apprentice
12/19/2013 | 1:39:51 PM
Re: Yikes.
The PCI spec is far from 100% secure. Its really just a minimal starting point.
IT-security-gladiator
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IT-security-gladiator,
User Rank: Apprentice
12/19/2013 | 12:17:05 PM
Must have been Microsoft servers that got hacked
If Target were running Linux Apache servers this would not have happened. Wise up Target and dump your MicroKlunk Junk MS DOS iis servers asap!
midmachine
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midmachine,
User Rank: Apprentice
12/19/2013 | 1:51:46 PM
Re: Must have been Microsoft servers that got hacked
That is today's most idiotic comment so far...sheesh...
WKash
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WKash,
User Rank: Apprentice
12/19/2013 | 6:19:17 PM
Re: Must have been Microsoft servers that got hacked
I agree, that statement takes the cake for idiotic statements.

What it took to pull this off is a level of sophistication that makes a bank robbery look simple...

I don't know if this is in fact correct, but it paints the picture -- and provides a basis for the next Hollywood Christmas Heist movie:

"To be successful, the adversary would have performed detailed reconnaissance and other activities in preparation for their primary mission objective. This would have required infrastructure compromise, entrenchment, command and control, and privileged access, all of which take time and effort."
samicksha
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samicksha,
User Rank: Apprentice
12/20/2013 | 5:18:47 AM
Re: Must have been Microsoft servers that got hacked
The most common pic we in India see these days is,

 

A new study shows that hackers can secretly transmit and receive data from laptops, mobiles and other devices by using high frequency audio signals inaudible to the human ears.(Source: http://www.mouthshut.com/blog/dgfjrqnqqm/Now-your-PC-can-be-hacked-just-with-a-sound)
midmachine
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midmachine,
User Rank: Apprentice
12/20/2013 | 8:46:24 AM
Re: Must have been Microsoft servers that got hacked
The clue for me, toher than what you quoted, was the reference to gleaning info from the stripe. Definitely agree with the level of sophistication. Most likely comprimising the readers at the checkouts. Inside job/assistance?
IT-security-gladiator
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IT-security-gladiator,
User Rank: Apprentice
12/21/2013 | 10:42:13 AM
Re: Must have been Microsoft servers that got hacked
midmachine,

 

What's idiotic is you work for MicroKlunk and have no clue how pathetic your iis servers are.

Get a grip idiot and learn Linux Apache, then I can welcome you to real technology not 1980's MS DOS servers.
aditshar
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aditshar,
User Rank: Apprentice
12/23/2013 | 7:14:40 AM
Re: Must have been Microsoft servers that got hacked
Sounds like Walmart people on target, i guess target need to target on increasing their security, else they will be exploiting their customers by putting profits over prudence.
catvalencia
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catvalencia,
User Rank: Apprentice
2/15/2014 | 5:52:08 AM
Re: Must have been Microsoft servers that got hacked
One of the biggest arguments for using credit cards over other payment systems is that the cards supposedly provide protection from scams. It is important to know, however, that this protection often comes with limitations.
Exit to Shell
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Exit to Shell,
User Rank: Apprentice
12/19/2013 | 1:31:53 PM
Re: Yikes.
I don't think Target should be commended for anything. Coming clean in a hurry without offering any type of free credit monitoring service for the affected guests seems like an inauthentic apology. They are basicllay saying... Hey everyone - we're sorry, I'd keep an eye on my credit card statements if I were you. We'll see if they do something more credible as time passes.

Also, with the rate at which cards are being stolen... 40 million here, 160 million there, there has to be a better way to protect consumers. Hopefully these breaches will drive the credit card/security industry to come up with better system.
Drew Conry-Murray
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Drew Conry-Murray,
User Rank: Ninja
12/19/2013 | 11:00:27 AM
Nice Holiday Present
As someone who shopped at Target during the breach period, I'll be spending the holidays taking a closer look at my card statements.
David F. Carr
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David F. Carr,
User Rank: Apprentice
12/19/2013 | 11:05:01 AM
Re: Nice Holiday Present
We've used the Target store credit card (Red Card) for our recent purchases there. Wondering if Target is better able to protect customers in that instance. If the crooks have that card #, at least they couldn't use it anywhere other than Target.
jagibbons
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jagibbons,
User Rank: Strategist
12/19/2013 | 1:25:40 PM
Re: Nice Holiday Present
The Rec Card is the way to go. Not only do you save 5% on purchases, but in this case Target could very easily cancel and re-issue all of them affected by this breach.
MarciaNWC
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MarciaNWC,
User Rank: Apprentice
12/19/2013 | 11:29:13 AM
Re: Nice Holiday Present
I also shopped at Target during the affected period, and am really frustrated. This breach underscores the broken nature of the payment card system. Gartner's Avivah Litan wrote a good analysis: http://blogs.gartner.com/avivah-litan/2013/12/19/what-can-we-learn-from-the-target-breach/.

 
Drew Conry-Murray
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Drew Conry-Murray,
User Rank: Ninja
12/19/2013 | 11:49:16 AM
Re: Nice Holiday Present
Thanks for link from Avivah. She calls out something that has always frustrated me about PCI: that a certified compliant company can be retroactively found non-compliant if there's a breach. The card brands seem to want to promote the ridiculous fantasy that PCI is a perfect system, and if a compliant company gets breached, then it must have been because weren't really compliant. It's bizarre logic.

 
Laurianne
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Laurianne,
User Rank: Apprentice
12/19/2013 | 12:21:45 PM
Re: Nice Holiday Present
What good does a retroactive noncompliant finding do? Thanks for pointing out this important part of the story. We'll have follow up coverage.
anon4768076153
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anon4768076153,
User Rank: Apprentice
12/19/2013 | 11:48:23 AM
Re: Nice Holiday Present
After hearing the news about Target hackings,  I checked my statement and lo and behold,  (I just shopped the Target store in Kearny Mesa San Diego (Othello) and my $81.00 bill turned into $101.00, I think the store manager might want to check one of their employees ... at around 2:45pm 12/19/13 description of cashier: heavy set Black (sorry not a racist ! just a description)  Unfortunately I threw out my receipt after unloading the items.  Managers only have to remember one of their other employee, named Teresa who did the same thing !
pmoore520
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pmoore520,
User Rank: Apprentice
12/19/2013 | 1:40:38 PM
Re: Nice Holiday Present
A recent article I read clued me in to another scam where the cashier (could be any store) will indicate a 'cash back' was included in the transaction when in fact, the buyer did not want any cash back.  The cashier then pockets the extra money.  Check your receipts anytime you use plastic before walking away from the register.  It only takes a moment....
cbabcock
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cbabcock,
User Rank: Apprentice
12/19/2013 | 3:28:58 PM
Yes, bring the miscreants to justice
This just plain hurts Target, and confidence in credit card use at retailers everywhere. Target's line about bringing the miscreants to justice was a brave one. If they and law enforcement can do that, maybe there's hope this won't become a commonplace. On the other hand, if they can't, that's a clue to why they couldn't prevent this break-in in the first place.
billmosby
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billmosby,
User Rank: Apprentice
12/19/2013 | 3:53:53 PM
Credit card theft is getting to be pretty normal.
Thank goodness I have never actually found anything I was looking for at Target in recent years. lol.
Susan Fourtané
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Susan Fourtané,
User Rank: Apprentice
12/21/2013 | 2:16:20 AM
Re: Credit card theft is getting to be pretty normal.
Bill, 

You can consider yourself very lucky.

-Susan
anon1187403560
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anon1187403560,
User Rank: Apprentice
12/20/2013 | 9:57:14 AM
Was It Really That Complicated?
Does anyone have any hard evidence regarding exactly what happened?  It's great to bloviate about how this must have been a Windows computer being compromised or that this was planned for months but why do we assume such complexity is required?  Someone on the inside could have access to encryption keys and simply copied a transaction log to a thumb drive.

Forest for the trees folks.  Forest for the trees.
ANON1236681627026
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ANON1236681627026,
User Rank: Apprentice
12/20/2013 | 8:50:53 PM
Target Breach
"But the retailer is to be commended for coming clean about the breach relatively quickly". Not so true; this breach happened November 27th, as a Target customer, I was informed YESTERDAY. Target expects their customers to do all the legwork to protect their identity and credit, EG:contact all the credit bureaus, place a freeze on their credit, etc. Not impressed, actually disgusted with their expectations and they lost me as a customer.

 
Alison Diana
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Alison Diana,
User Rank: Apprentice
12/24/2013 | 12:00:27 PM
Lack of Education in Banks too
I used my debit card once during that period in Target, instead of my usual Target Red Card. So first thing, I called my large, national bank to cancel it, then went to the local branch to pick up a temporary card until the replacement arrived in "10-15 business days." The local branch manager said I would be fine and she couldn't understand why the bank was allowing customers to cancel their cards since customers had zero liability. I explained it was my DEBIT card, not credit card and I was concerned my entire paycheck could be wiped out and payments would bounce all over creation. "But you're not liable," she said, not once comprehending my concerns. 

Obviously, there is still a major disconnect - at least with one employee at one bank - about the full scope these breaches can have.
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