Attacks/Breaches
8/15/2012
10:35 AM
50%
50%

Reveton Malware Freezes PCs, Demands Payment

FBI warns of Reveton 'ransomware' scam that freezes Windows PCs, accuses you of a crime, and requests you pay fines to unlock computer.

11 Security Sights Seen Only At Black Hat
11 Security Sights Seen Only At Black Hat
(click image for larger view and for slideshow)
Has your Windows PC frozen up, displaying a lock screen with warnings from the FBI that the PC has been used to illegally access or distributed copyrighted material, or "prohibited pornographic content"?

If so, then you're likely dealing with "ransomware" known as Reveton, which freezes PCs and opens a window telling people that if they want to regain control, they'll need to pay a "fine" via a prepaid money card service. Helpfully, a "pay MoneyPak" code-entry box is even helpfully included on the lock screen. But unlocking a Reveton-infected PC can be difficult, owing to the malware often being deployed in conjunction with other malware that's designed to block users from accessing security websites.

The FBI last week issued a warning that the number of Reveton infections has recently been surging. "We're getting inundated with complaints," said Donna Gregory, a manager at the Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3), which is a joint effort between the FBI and the National White Collar Crime Center, in a statement. "Some people have actually paid the so-called fine," she said, noting that amounts of $200 aren't uncommon.

[ Learn how to deal with another important security problem. Read 5 Ways To Solve The Password Reset Problem. ]

"Instructions were given on how to load the card and make the payment," one victim of the scam wrote in an emailed complaint to the IC3. "The page said if the demands were not met, criminal charges would be filed and my computer would remain locked on that screen."

Some versions of the scam pretend to be from the FBI, while others list the Department of Justice's Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section as being behind the freeze. Regardless, the warning notices are heavy on the legalese, accusing PC owners of everything from "violating Article 202 of the Criminal Code" to distributing child pornography. According to the FBI, some versions of Reveton even "turn on computer webcams and display the victim's picture on the frozen screen."

Most Reveton infections also seem to be the result of "drive-by viruses," said the FBI, referring to PCs being infected via known vulnerabilities when they visit a compromised website, rather than through phishing attacks or tricking users into opening malicious email attachments.

The Reveton ransomware is typically delivered via Citadel Trojan malware, according to the FBI's warning. Based on the Zeus malware, Citadel is an all-purpose crimeware kit designed for financial fraud, which debuted on Russian underground hacking websites in December 2011 and sells for $2,500, although plug-ins for adding additional capabilities, as well as a monthly malware-as-a-service update, cost extra.

Citadel's creators have seen rapid uptake of their malware, reportedly owing to high-quality customer service practices, such as frequent updates that add customer-requested capabilities. These include AES encryption to help hide communications between infected "zombie" PCs and its command-and-control server, capabilities for defeating botnet-tracking services, and blocks that stop infected PCs from visiting security vendors' websites or antivirus-signature updating sites.

But according to a July 2012 blog post from a fraud research group at security firm RSA, thanks to law enforcement pressure, Citadel's developer has announced that he's withdrawing the malware from the open--albeit underground--market. "It appears that soon enough only existing customers will continue to enjoy Citadel Trojan upgrades and those wishing to purchase a new kit from the outside will have to get a current customer to vouch for them or be denied the product altogether," according to RSA.

Not everyone, however, is buying the bureau's assertion that Citadel is being used to distribute Reveton. According to security journalist Brian Krebs, a team of Reveton-tracking researchers instead suspects that scammers are using exploit toolkits such as BlackHole to infect PCs with both types of malware.

Comment  | 
Print  | 
More Insights
Comments
Newest First  |  Oldest First  |  Threaded View
Mathew
50%
50%
Mathew,
User Rank: Apprentice
8/16/2012 | 8:29:55 AM
re: Reveton Malware Freezes PCs, Demands Payment
Thanks for the comment, EJW. What people can do is be aware. In case of infection, the FBI's advice was essentially to seek out a computer professional for help, and that's good counsel. Run antivirus software in the first place. But mostly, be aware of these types of scams.
FUD? More, I think the FBI saying: "Please stop calling us about this ransomware, it's not really from us." And a cautionary note that people shouldn't pay up in these attacks. The continued existence of these types of attacks suggests that they're succeeding often enough to be profitable.
-- Mathew Schwartz
EJW
50%
50%
EJW,
User Rank: Apprentice
8/15/2012 | 5:46:30 PM
re: Reveton Malware Freezes PCs, Demands Payment
So what are we supposed to do about it?

What can we do other than the apply "generic" security practice?

Otherwise all this does is generate more FUD
Register for Dark Reading Newsletters
White Papers
Cartoon
Current Issue
Dark Reading, January 2015
To find and fix exploits aimed directly at your business, stop waiting for alerts and become a proactive hunter.
Flash Poll
Video
Slideshows
Twitter Feed
Dark Reading - Bug Report
Bug Report
Enterprise Vulnerabilities
From DHS/US-CERT's National Vulnerability Database
CVE-2013-7402
Published: 2014-12-17
Multiple unspecified vulnerabilities in request.c in c-icap 0.2.x allow remote attackers to cause a denial of service (crash) via a crafted ICAP request.

CVE-2014-5437
Published: 2014-12-17
Multiple cross-site request forgery (CSRF) vulnerabilities in ARRIS Touchstone TG862G/CT Telephony Gateway with firmware 7.6.59S.CT and earlier allow remote attackers to hijack the authentication of administrators for requests that (1) enable remote management via a request to remote_management.php,...

CVE-2014-5438
Published: 2014-12-17
Cross-site scripting (XSS) vulnerability in ARRIS Touchstone TG862G/CT Telephony Gateway with firmware 7.6.59S.CT and earlier allows remote authenticated users to inject arbitrary web script or HTML via the computer_name parameter to connected_devices_computers_edit.php.

CVE-2014-7170
Published: 2014-12-17
Race condition in Puppet Server 0.2.0 allows local users to obtain sensitive information by accessing it in between package installation or upgrade and the start of the service.

CVE-2014-7285
Published: 2014-12-17
The management console on the Symantec Web Gateway (SWG) appliance before 5.2.2 allows remote authenticated users to execute arbitrary OS commands by injecting command strings into unspecified PHP scripts.

Best of the Web
Dark Reading Radio
Archived Dark Reading Radio
Join us Wednesday, Dec. 17 at 1 p.m. Eastern Time to hear what employers are really looking for in a chief information security officer -- it may not be what you think.